Knee Replacement or Knee Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to resurface a knee damaged by arthritis. The most common condition that results in the need for knee replacing surgery is osteoarthritis. It can be performed as a partial or a total knee replacement surgery. It is for someone who has severe diseases such as arthritis or a severe knee injury. Knee surgery consists of replacing the diseased or damaged joint surface with metal and plastic components used to keep the bones that form the knee joint, along with the kneecap.
Osteoarthritis is characterised by the breakdown of joint cartilage. Damage to the cartilage and bones limits movement and may cause pain. People with a severe degenerative joint disease may be unable to do normal activities that involve bending at the knee, such as walking or climbing stairs because they are painful. The knee may swell or “give-way” because the joint is not stable.
Types of Knee Replacement Surgery
The knee is a hinge joint which provides motion at the point where the thigh meets the lower leg. There are several different types of surgeries to treat the joint replacement depends on various factors. Such as the patient’s age, anatomy, general health, lifestyle, and personal preferences.
There are three compartments of the knee – tibia, femur and the back side of the patella. If arthritis affects only one side of your knee – usually the inner side – it may be possible to have a partial joint replacing. Because it involves less interference with the knee than a total knee replacing, it usually means a quicker recovery and better function. It uses smaller incisions.
Total Knee Replacement
It is done to replace the end of the three joint’s compartments tibia, femur and the back side of the patella of the knee joint with the artificial and plastic replacement parts. The procedure is usually for older patients who suffer from pain and loss of function from arthritis and have no results from other conservative methods of therapy.
Revision Knee Replacement
This surgery is for removing and replacing a prosthetic knee joint that is worn out, or that has failed. Although implants last for many years, 15 to 20 years or more. Your prosthesis will break or wear out if you are overweight or you engage in high – impact activities such as running or court sports, the device may fail sooner. Revision knee replacing may also involve the use of bone grafts or an allograft.
Minimally Invasive Knee Replacement
It is similar to the knee replacement surgery. But it is performed through an approx 3 to 4-inch incision, half the length of a typical joint replacing incision. These small incisions are specific instruments which move around soft tissue, rather than cut through it.